The notion that differences among societies will decrease over time can be found in many works of eighteenth and nineteenth century social thinkers, from the prerevolutionary French philosophes and the Scottish moral philosophers through de Tocqueville, Toennies, Maine, Marx, Spencer, Weber, and Durkheim Weinberg ; Baum In sociological discourse since the s, the term convergence theory has carried a more specific connotation, referring to the hypothesized link between economic development and concomitant changes in social organization, particularly work and industrial organization, class structure, demographic patterns, characteristics of the family, education, and the role of government in assuring basic social and economic security. The core notion of convergence theory is that as nations achieve similar levels of economic development they will become more alike in terms of these and other aspects of social life. In the s and s, predictions of societal convergence were most closely associated with modernization theories, which generally held that developing societies will follow a path of economic development similar to that followed by developed societies of the West.
I would also like to thank the Northey Street City Farm gardeners for their participation in the interview process.
My thanks are also extended to my parents Alberto and Licia Gelsi for their moral support, to Mr Kieran Tranter, Ms Lyndall Sleep and Ms Philippa Hawke for their advice and lengthy discussions, and to Mr Robert Righton without whose computer support this thesis would have not been possible.
This chapter outlines the purpose of this thesis and its organisation, and defines some important concepts. Cultural habits significantly impact on policies and plans aimed at addressing the social, economic and material needs of people.
The engagement in consumption activities constitutes one such significant cultural habit for people in Western countries. However, due to a theoretical bias towards production, sociologists and policy makers ignore consumption as an important form of cultural activity.
This thesis attempts to redress this theoretical imbalance by examining the practices of consumption of a group of Australian community gardeners. The reason for exploring the social and cultural life of a community gardening Benefits of ritzer mcdonaldization is to provide a site where environmentalist concerns about the impacts of consumption intersect with those social and economic relations that environmentalists are attempting to transform.
Given the scarcity of sociological research on community gardening, this thesis presents an exploratory study of one of the 38 Australian community garden and city farm groups listed by Phillips Specifically, I will explore how the community gardeners' production and consumption activities, together with the cultural and ideological representations of these come to mediate and construct the group's identity.
Community gardening as urban agriculture Community gardening is one of many forms of urban agriculture. In order to place community gardening in its context it is necessary to have an understanding of the status of contemporary urban agriculture as a broad strategy for addressing the socio-economic and ecological impacts of food production through self-sufficiency, self-reliance and permaculture design.
Urban agriculture is the production of vegetable and animal food within urban boundaries. For instance, peri-urban agriculture broad acre commercial food production is practised on the urban fringe. Food is also grown on rooftops, in apartment gardens, and in home backyards. Community gardens are also sites where food is grown.
However, they have their own distinct social organisation. Community gardens are sites where people produce vegetables and fruit and educate the public about urban agriculture. They may be cultivated communally or subdivided into allotments cultivated by individuals.
City farms also engage in these same activities and are organised in the same way, but also rear domestic animals as food sources. As community gardens and city farms are very similar, hereafter these terms will be treated as synonymous.
Community gardens are numerous in industrialised countries. In New York alone there are over community gardens, and Boston and San Francisco have and respectively.
Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver are also similarly involved in community gardening Sommers and Smit In all known cases the land belongs to the city municipality. Urban agricultural activities can be traced back to antiquity Mougeot Today environmentalists and non-government organisations argue that urban agriculture has the potential for addressing a number of social, economic and ecological problems cf.
Funches ; Katz However, most efforts at developing urban agriculture are aimed at industrialising countries where lack of food access accentuates health and nutritional issues. This focus has taken precedence over the development of long-term urban agricultural policies that address broader urban social and ecological sustainability issues in industrialised countries cf.
Because of this the intersection between these policy concerns and the cultural context of urban agricultural activity has also been ignored.by Emanuele John Gelsi, B.A.
(JCU), ashio-midori.com (JCU) [email protected] March A thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Planning and Development in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at The University of Queensland.
The McDonaldization of Society, Revised New Century Edition, discusses how McDonaldization and the broader process of globalization (in a new Chapter 8) are spreading more widely and more deeply into various social institutions such as education, medicine, the criminal justice system, and more.
In traditional usage, a global public good is a public good available on a more-or-less worldwide basis. There are many challenges to the traditional definition, which have far .
The idea that societies move toward a condition of similarity—that they converge in one or more respects—is a common feature of various theories of social change. The notion that differences among societies will decrease over time can be found in [ ]. Civic Virtue: The Right Thing for Our Society - Introduction Perhaps, the American society is the most divergent, the most accommodating and the most culturally diverse among all societies across the globe.
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