However, in actuality, this recent initiative is connected to a longer-term effort, formulated inwhich aims to gradually open up Chinese markets to foreign direct investment FDI and to more closely conform with international standards. The issue is topical, as China has recently been involved with intense negotiations between both the U. On the one hand, the U.
The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the worlds oldest. Inthe first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour. Init was opened for the use of the British East India Company. The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department,  at that time.
William O'Shaughnessywho pioneered the telegraph and telephone in India, belonged to the Public Works Department, and worked towards the development of telecom throughout this period. A separate department was opened in when telegraph facilities were opened to the public.
The permission was refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones was a Government monopoly and that the Government itself would undertake the work. Inthe Government later reversed its earlier decision and a licence was granted to the Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening telephone exchanges at CalcuttaBombayMadras and Ahmedabad and the first formal telephone service was established in the country.
The exchange in Calcutta named the "Central Exchange" had a total of 93 subscribers in its early stage. Later that year, Bombay also witnessed the opening of a telephone exchange.
Radio broadcasting was initiated in but became state responsibility only in In it was given the name All India Radio and since it has been called Akashvani. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting owned and maintained the audio-visual apparatus—including the television channel Doordarshan —in the country prior to the economic reforms of Inan autonomous body was established in the name of Prasar Bharti to take care of the public service broadcasting under the Prasar Bharti Act.
While all the major cities and towns in the country were linked with telephones during the British period, the total number of telephones in numbered only around 80, Post independence, growth remained slow because the telephone was seen more as a status symbol rather than being an instrument of utility.
The number of telephones grew leisurely toin2. Liberalisation and privatisation[ edit ] A mobile phone tower in Leh, Ladakh, India, surrounded by Buddhist prayer flags Liberalisation of Indian telecommunication in industry started in when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company ITIin an effort to set up 5, lines per year.
But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition. Consequently, private investment in the sector of Value Added Services VAS was allowed and cellular telecom sector were opened up for competition from private investments.
It was during this period that the Narsimha Rao -led government introduced the National Telecommunications policy NTP in which brought changes in the following areas: The policy introduced the concept of telecommunication for all and its vision was to expand the telecommunication facilities to all the villages in India.
The multi-nationals were just involved in technology transfer, and not policy making. The Rao run government instead liberalised the local services, taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after 5 years.
The country was divided into 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services.
These circles were divided into category A, B and C depending on the value of the revenue in each circle. The government threw open the bids to one private company per circle along with government owned DoT per circle.
For cellular service two service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years licence was given to each provider. The political powers changed in and the new government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee was more pro-reforms and introduced better liberalisation policies.
Any dispute involving parties like licensor, licensee, service provider and consumers are resolved by TDSAT. Domestic business groups wanted the government to privatise VSNL.
After Marchthe government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licences to private operators. Because of all these factors, the service fees finally reduced and the call costs were cut greatly enabling every common middle-class family in India to afford a cell phone.
Nearly 32 million handsets were sold in India. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market. In the initial 5—6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0. However, after a number of proactive initiatives taken by regulators and licensors, the total number of mobile subscribers has increased rapidly to over million subscribers as of May Phones without valid IMEI cannot be connected to cellular operators.
In addition to landline and mobile phones, some of the companies also provide the WLL service.The number of mergers and acquisitions in Telecom Sector has been increasing significantly.
Telecommunications industry is one of the most profitable and rapidly developing industries in the world and it is regarded as an indispensable component of the worldwide utility and services sector. Telecommunication industry deals with various forms of communication mediums, for example .
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity. Until , China was the world's fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 10% over 30 years.
Due to historical and political facts of China's developing economy, China's public sector accounts for a.
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Keywords: FDI, Telecommunication Industry, Global Market & Economic Benefit. * Associate Professor, Indra Gandhi National College, Ladwa **Associate Professor Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management and Technology, Jagadhri. w Suresh De Mel David McKenzie Christopher Woodruff: Labor Drops: Experimental Evidence on the Return to Additional Labor in Microenterprises.
FDI in China Telecommunication Industry (Nokia in China) FDI are crucial part for developing and expanding the infrastructure in order to gain capital and new technology.
Foreign direct investment can spark growth and create national wealth, but competition among companies, local and multinational alike, diffuses the benefits.