Reviewed by Brian Chalmers It is nearly impossible to dig into any chapter of Jewish history without uncovering lessons for our own age. Spain during the 15th and 16th centuries is a particularly striking example. Even today, our view of this period, and particularly of the Spanish Inquisition, colors our attitudes regarding relations between Jews and non-Jews. The Inquisition is considered one of Jewish history's darkest chapters -- and one of Christian history's most shameful.
In Palestine Under Egyptian Rule. During the Egyptian government of Palestine the taxes of each city were annually leased to the highest bidder Josephus, "Ant. The lessee paid into the royal treasury a fixed annual sum; and whatever the revenue yielded in excess was his gain, whereas if the sum was not realized he had to bear the loss.
He held the office of tax-collector for twenty-two years, and was succeeded by his son Hyrcanus. How exacting the tax-collectors must have been may be judged from the fact that in spite of the increase of the annual rental from 8, to 16, talents, Joseph and Hyrcanus were still able to accumulate immense riches.
Jewish hatred for tax collectors in former, according to Josephus ib. However, both father and son showed great leniency toward their coreligionists; and their accumulated wealth raised the material condition of Judea.
Under the government of Palestine by the Syrian kings all the taxes were collected by state officials.
The Romans left to the governors or procurators the collection of the regular taxes, such as the land-tax and poll-tax, but leased the customs duties, the market tolls, and similar special imposts. The lessees were generally Roman knights; but there were among them Jews also.
The fact that they were helping the Romans in the exaction of the heavy taxes imposed upon the Jews, combined with the rapacity of some tax-collectors who, taking advantage of the indefiniteness of the tariffs, overcharged the taxpayer, rendered this class of officials hateful to the people.
Hence the stringent Jewish legislation which classified the tax-collectors with robbers. Thus, for instance, it was forbidden to take payment in coin from the treasury of the tax-gatherer or to receive alms from it, because the money had been gained by robbery B.
The tax-gatherer was ineligible to serve as judge or even as a witness Sanh. If one member of a family was a tax-gatherer, all its members were liable to be considered as such for the purposes of testimony, because they would be likely to shield him Sheb.
In the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages the position of tax-collector was often filled by Jews. Mention is made of Jewish tax-collectors in France as early as the sixth century Gregory of Tours, "Historia Francorum," vii. That this prohibition was disregarded is seen from the fact that the Council of Meaux deemed it necessary to renew it.
The collection of Jewish taxes was always entrusted to Jews; during the reign of Charles V.
The kings likewise often entrusted to Jews the position of receiver-general of taxes. Until the regency of John I. In Germany the Jews were very early excluded from all public offices; and it can not be ascertained whether they ever filled there the position of tax-receiver.
In Hungary the Jews were excluded from the office in by the Council of Buda. The higher Polish nobility, however, depended largely on the Jews for tax-collectors; until lately the Russian government also made use of Jewish tax-gatherers "sborschiki" for the collection of taxes from the Jews; and it still leases to the highest bidder the special Jewish taxes, such as that on kasher-meat "korobka"and on the candles used for Sabbath and for other religious purposes.
Until the middle of the seventeenth century the customs duties were generally leased by the Turkish government to Jews. At present Abraham Alkula holds the position. For the tax-gatherers in Judea:Greater detail is provided by Philo (30 B.C.E A.D.), who gives voice to the Jewish tradition of hatred for those who placed themselves outside the law and provides a vivid image of why tax collectors were so hated by the provincial population unable to protect itself.
Educator Leon Bass, January 23, – March 28, Former Principal of Benjamin Franklin High School, Philadelphia, PA witnessed Buchenwald concentration camp shortly after its liberation. Why Trump Won. President Trump, Dear Diary Articles, Elections Why Trump Won By Brother Nathanael Kapner November 20, ©.
DEAR DIARY, many are musing on why Trump won. But first we need to see why Clinton lost. Some say it’s because she did not stress what she would do rather than slamming what Trump would trash, while others say it’s because millions of Democrats did not vote.
At a time when European Jewish leaders warn of increasing anti-Semitism, the Amsterdam museum uses the family’s story to educate visitors about the horrors of the Holocaust. Anyone who starts looking into the Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion will frequently encounter the old chestnut about a "hoax" or a "forgery".
When Philip Graves made the allegation in , long before the days of the internet and all the pages detailing the various logical fallacies, his target audience had never heard of a circular argument or a non sequitur. The History of Palestine in New Testament Times Herod the Great.
From 63 B.C.E. Palestine was subject to Rome. In that year the Roman general Pompey marched on Jerusalem, and after a three month siege entered the city, went into the Temple, and even inspected the Holy of Holies—a terrible desecration of the Temple.