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Enlightenment era[ edit ] In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century Europesame-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws.
There were, however, some exceptions. For example, in the 17th century cross dressing was common in plays, as evident in the content of many of William Shakespeare 's plays and by the actors in actual performance since female roles in Elizabethan theater were always performed by males, usually prepubescent boys.
Thomas Cannon wrote what may be the earliest published defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd Although only fragments of his work have survived, it was a humorous anthology of homosexual advocacy, written with an obvious enthusiasm for its subject.
Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts: Are not they, however constructed, and consequently impelling, Nature?
Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England aroundat a time when the legal penalty for buggery was death by hanging. His advocacy stemmed from his utilitarian philosophyin which the morality of an action is determined by the net consequence of that action on human well-being.
He argued that homosexuality was a victimless crime, and therefore not deserving of social approbation or criminal charges. He regarded popular negative attitudes against homosexuality as an irrational prejudice, fanned and perpetuated by religious teachings. With the introduction of the Napoleonic Code inthe Duchy of Warsaw also decriminalized homosexuality.
Inan anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong? And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong?
The Male Love of the Greeks"another defence of same-sex love. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Karl Heinrich UlrichsGerman gay rights activist of the s In many ways, social attitudes to homosexuality became more hostile during the late Victorian era.
Inthe Labouchere Amendment was included in the Criminal Law Amendment Actwhich criminalized 'any act of gross indecency with another male person'; a charge that was successfully invoked to convict playwright Oscar Wilde in with the most severe sentence possible under the Act.
From the s, social reformers began to defend homosexuality, but due to the controversial nature of their advocacy, kept their identities secret. Oscar Wilde was taken by his boyish looks and persuaded him to shave off his moustache, and once kissed him passionately in the Travellers' Club. InIves created and founded the first homosexual rights group, the Order of Chaeronea.
John Addington Symonds was a poet and an early advocate of male love. Inhe wrote A Problem in Greek Ethics, a work of what would later be called " gay history.
Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language inSymonds had already used the word in A Problem in Greek Ethics.
By the end of his life, Symonds' homosexuality had become an open secret in Victorian literary and cultural circles. In particular, Symonds' memoirs, written over a four-year period, from toform the earliest known self-conscious homosexual autobiography.
Another friend of Ives was the English socialist poet Edward Carpenter. Carpenter thought that homosexuality was an innate and natural human characteristic and that it should not be regarded as a sin or a criminal offence.
In the s, Carpenter began a concerted effort to campaign against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientationpossibly in response to the recent death of Symonds, whom he viewed as his campaigning inspiration. Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay also wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny.
English sexologist Havelock Ellis wrote the first objective scientific study of homosexuality inin which he treated it as a neutral sexual condition. Called Sexual Inversion it was first printed in German and then translated into English a year later. In the book, Ellis argued that same-sex relationships could not be characterized as a pathology or a crime and that its importance rose above the arbitrary restrictions imposed by society.
The book was so controversial at the time that one bookseller was charged in court for holding copies of the work. It is claimed that Ellis coined the term 'homosexual', but in fact he disliked the word due to its conflation of Greek and Latin.
These early proponents of LGBT rights, such as Carpenter, were often aligned with a broader socio-political movement known as ' free love '; a critique of Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women.
Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century, including Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldmanalso spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation. In he formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee campaign publicly against the notorious law " Paragraph ", which made sex between men illegal.
Adolf Brand later broke away from the group, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the " intermediate sex ", seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding.ashio-midori.com is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists.
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By Jane Norman, Program Manager for Youth Empowerment Initiatives, Advocates for Youth. What Is a Youth-Adult Partnership? A true partnership is one in which each party has the opportunity to make suggestions and decisions and in which the contribution of each is recognized and valued.
The article contains general information on youth-related issues in Cambodia. The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a not-for-profit and non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current ashio-midori.com is the originator of the Chatham House Rule and takes its name from the building where it is based, a Grade I listed 18th-century house.
Youth ministry programs on Faithful Citizenship can be as simple or elaborate as the leader chooses. They can be incorporated over several weeks and months, or they can be the focus of one session or retreat or part of one, depending on .